This site is dedicated to the study of the ‘typed image’, investigating the convergence of image and type. On this site you have found contemporary and historical examples which blur the boundaries between type and image, and scholarly responses to such practice.

For a more detailed analysis of the typed image, see my paper, 'Semiotics and Typography':
Semiotics and Typography, Barbara Brownie, 2009 (Download the PDF)

My scholarly responses are informed by numerous text, including the following:

Barthes, Roland, and Cape, Jonathan (translator), Mythologies, Paladin, London, 1973.

Barthes, Roland, Heath, Stephen(translator), Image Music Text, Fontana Press, London, 1977.

Christie, Edward, ‘The Image of the Letter: From the Anglo-Saxons to the Electronic Beowulf’, Culture, Theory and Critique, 44:2, pp. 129-150. (visited 20/05/2009)

Crow, David, Left To Right: The Cultural Shift from Words to Images, AVA, Swizerland, 2007.

Gross, Sabine, ‘The Word Turned Image: Reading Pattern Poems’, Poetics Today, Vol. 128, No. 1 (Spring 1997), pp. 15-32, p. 20. (visited 13/05/2009)

Hawkes, Terrence, Structuralism and Semiotics, Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, 1977.

Lapacherie, Jean-Gérard, and Lehmann, Anna, ‘Typographic Characters: Tension between Text and Drawing’, Yale French Studies, No. 48, 1994, pp. 63-77, http// (visited 13/05/2009)

Lewis, David, Reading Contemporary Picturebooks, Routledge, London, 2001.

Miller, J. Abbott, and Lupton, Ellen, ‘A Natural History of Typography’, in Bierut, Michael, Drenttel, William, Heller, Steven, and Holland, D.K. (eds), Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design, Allworth Press, NY, 1994 , pp. 19-25

Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo, ‘Typohoto’, 1925, in Armstrong, Helen (ed.), Graphic Design Theory, Princeton Architectural Press, NY, 2009, pp. 33-34.

Poynor, Rick, No More Rules: Graphic Design and Postmodernism, Laurence King Publishing, London, 2003.

Saussure, Ferdinand de, Harris, Roy (translator), Course in General Linguistics, Duckworth, London, 1983

Slater, Don, ‘Photography and Modern Vision: The Spectacle of ‘Natural Magic’’, in Jenks, Chris (ed.), Visual Culture, Routledge, London, 1995. pp. 218-237

Tschichold, Jan, and McLean, Ruari (translator),The New Typography, University of California Press, LA, 1998. (first published in German in 1928)

Tsur, Raven, ‘Picture Poetry, Mannerism, and Sign Relationships’, Poetics Today, 21:4 (Winter 2000), 2000, pp. 751-781,

van Leeuwen, Theo, ‘Typographic Meaning’, Visual Communication, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005, pp. 137-142. 14/02/2007)

Varga, A. Kibedi. ‘Criteria for Describing Word and Image Relations’, Poetics Today, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1989, pp. 31-53, (visited 13/05/2009)

Ward, Beatrice, The Crystal Goblet, 1955, (visited 10/07/2009)

The text contained within this website is © Barbara Briownie, 2009.

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